Fredagen den 30 oktober anordnade Fores i samarbete med Utrikespolitiska Institutet och Franska Ambassaden ett klimatrollspel i Utrikespolitiska Institutets lokaler inför klimattoppmötet i Paris.
Deltagarna kom från olika universitet, politiska ungdomsförbund och intresse organisationer, och var indelade i delegationer för EU, USA, Kina, Indien, Indonesien (för G77), Nauru (för AOSIS), Etiopien (för Afrikanska gruppen), Mexico, Japan och Saudiarabien.
Dagen började med öppningstal av Frankrikes Ambassadör Jacques Lapouge, Fores Daniel Engström Stensson och Sveriges före detta chefsförhandlare Anders Turesson, som under dagen även höll i ordförandeklubban.
Efter delegationernas inledande anföranden delades de in i två förhandlings grupper för att diskutera hur finansiering och utsläppsminskningar ska se ut i ett framtida klimatavtal.
Delegaterna avslutade dagens förhandlingar med mingel på den franska ambassadörens residens, och firade att man (för ovanlighetens skull) lyckats enas om ett avtal på utsatt tid.
Hur gick det då?
I den framförhandlade texten ingick bland annat:
- en indelning av länder i tre annex gällande utsläppsminskningar
- en ny finansieringsfond för medelinkomstländer (med tydlig BNI per capita definition)
…och mycket mer. Läs gärna den slutliga texten nedan
Article 1. Overall target and Legal nature
§1 The Parties to the Stockholm Agreement underlines that climate change is one of the greatest challenges of our time. They will work together to reduce global emissions of greenhouse gases to a level that keep global warming below 2 degrees Celsius, consistent with the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and their common but differentiated responsibilities. Developed countries shall take the lead. Further underlines the responsibility of emerging countries to address their emissions to the extent possible given their development needs.
§2 Annex 1a, 1b and 1c is hereby established within the Stockholm Agreement. Commitments inscribed in Annex 1a shall be made by developed countries, in accordance with the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities. Contributions by developing countries are welcome and will be inscribed in Annexes 1b and 1c, as an effort to the global common cause and with a differentiation as to the MRV. Commitments in Annex 1a are legally binding and should within 90 days after the adoption of this Agreement be ratified by Parties and implemented in domestic jurisdiction
Article 2. Mitigation
§1 Urges all Parties to increase their ambition of emission reduction targets, in pursuit of the Ultimate Objective of the Convention. All Parties shall jointly strive to reduce global emissions of greenhouse gases by 50 % by 2050 compared to the 1990 base line. Developed Parties shall undertake a rapid reduction of their greenhouse gas emissions by 70-95 % below 2010 levels by 2050. It should be the ambition of developing nations to limit their emissions. Emerging countries should cap their increase in emissions before 2030.
§2 Reaffirming that social and economic development and poverty eradication are the first and overriding priorities of developing country Parties, and that the share of global emissions originating in developing countries may grow to meet their social and development needs. Developed countries should assist in particular least developed countries in this endeavor, including but not limited to means provided by the Green Climate Fund
§3 The Parties included in Annex 1a shall ensure that their anthropogenic carbon dioxide equivalent emissions of the greenhouse gases listed do not exceed their assigned amounts, calculated pursuant to their quantified emission limitation and reduction commitments inscribed in Annex 1a of this Agreement with a view to reducing their overall emissions of such gases to the extent necessary to keep global warming below the 2 degrees target.
§4 In striving to meet their legally binding commitments to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases, Parties are allowed to take due consideration to unforeseeable and urgent national circumstances, such as warlike conditions, risks of natural disasters and other overriding threats to national security. This does however not alter that all Parties are committed to fulfill their legally binding obligations.
§5 Recognizes the importance of historical emissions where developed countries have a greater responsibility to commit to mitigation targets
§6 Parties included in Annex 1 should be allowed to trade Allowed Emission Units between them as long as the total amount of emissions does not exceed what is being agreed in Article 2 paragraph 1.
§7 Decides to periodically review the adequacy of the long-term global goal referred to in the above paragraphs, in the light of the ultimate objective of the Agreement, and overall progress towards achieving it and new scientific evidence
Article 3 – Finance
§1 Recognizes that the consequences from Climate Change puts a burden on the most poor and vulnerable countries, and that developed countries due to their historical emissions have a responsibility to provide finance to assist developing countries for adaptation and mitigation
§2 Requests developed country Parties to provide developing country Parties with long-term, scaled-up, predictable, new and additional finance, to enable and support enhanced action on mitigation in accordance with [Article 1 of this agreement.]
§3 Decides that developed countries commit to a goal of jointly mobilizing USD 150 billion dollars per year by 2020 to address the needs of least developed countries. Funding will be provided from a wide variety of sources, public and private including revenues from market based mechanism, bilateral and multilateral, including alternative sources of finance in accordance with Annex II to this agreement.
§4 Requests developed countries to inscribe into Annex 2 their contribution in the period of 2015-2020, no later than 31 December 2015.
§5 Recognizes the need of scaled up finance after 2020, with a view of reaching USD 200 billion dollars annually in 2025, flowing from developed countries to least developed countries, including compensation of financial insecurity arising from climate action.
§6 Requests developed countries to engage in bilateral agreements with developing countries on additional financial support.
§7 Decides that the Green Climate Fund shall be governed by a Board, comprising an equal number of members from developing and developed country Parties, emphasizing transparency and local ownership in implementation;
§8 Decides that the Green Climate Fund are to distribute funds to the least developed and most vulnerable countries with a balanced allocation between adaptation and mitigation; funding for adaptation will be prioritized for the most vulnerable developing countries, such as the least developed countries, small island developing States and Africa;
§9 Decides to establish the Mid Income Country Transition Fund, in order to facilitate the funding of a transition into a sustainable economy in Mid Income Countries, defined as countries with a 2012 GNI per capita between 1.036 and 12.615 USD. The Fund is to financed through private and alternative sources, such as international fees on shipping and aviation.
§10 Reaffirms that all developing countries will need financial support to facilitate a transformation to a sustainable future, including support for energy efficiency and technological development.